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In this lecture Professor Zach Murphy will be presenting on Pleural Diseases. The conditions we will be discussing will include pleural effusion, atelectasis, pneumothorax, and tension pneumothorax.
A pleural effusion is the accumulation of fluid in between the parietal and visceral pleura, called the pleural cavity. It can occur by itself or can be the result of surrounding parenchymal disease like infection, malignancy, or inflammatory conditions.
Atelectasis is a complete or partial collapse of the entire lung or lobe of the lung. It occurs when the alveoli within the lung become deflated or possibly filled with alveolar fluid.
A pneumothorax is a collection of air outside the lung but within the pleural cavity. It occurs when air accumulates between the parietal and visceral pleura inside the chest. The air accumulation can apply pressure on the lung and make it collapse.
A tension pneumothorax occurs when air accumulates between the chest wall and the lung and increases pressure in the chest, reducing the amount of blood returned to the heart. Symptoms include chest pain, shortness of breath, rapid breathing, and a racing heart, followed by shock.
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